Types of Bread Based on the Types of Flour Used

Understanding the best uses of each type of flour will give you the most promising baking results.

Bread is a traditional staple food all around the world. Specific types of bread were developed according to the available grains of each region. Similar grains of different regions often vary in subtle ways creating unique bread. For example, rye is used in Jewish, Swedish and Russian rye bread. It may be light or dark depending on the region of origin and added ingredients.

One of the keys to the art of baking bread is using the proper flour in your recipe. Flour is not always interchangeable. Flour from particular varieties of grains produce specific results in your baking.  Gluten and gluten free both impact the texture and behavior of flour in your baked goods.

We have attached a quick reference guide for you. This guide lists wheat and non-wheat varieties of grain, the type of flour each grain is processed into and the appropriate bread for each type of flour.

Wheat Flour Based Types of Bread

CategorySubcategoryTypes of bread
Hard winter red wheatAll-Purpose Flourcookies, muffins, rolls and some breads
White Wheat Flourcookies, muffins, rolls and some breads
Self-Rising Flourscratch biscuits, pancakes and cookies
Whole Wheat Flourbreads, rolls and some pastries
Hard spring red wheatWhite Bread Flourbreads and rolls
High Gluten Flourpizza, focaccia, mullet-grain breads and Kaiser rolls
Soft winter red wheatAll-Purpose Flourcookies, muffins, rolls and some breads
White Wheat Flourcookies, muffins, rolls and some breads
Self-Rising Flourscratch biscuits, pancakes and cookies
Hard winter white wheatWhole Wheat Flourbreads, rolls and some pastries
High Gluten Flourpizza, focaccia, mullet-grain breads and Kaiser rolls
Semolina   Flourpasta
Fine French FlourFrench specialty breads
Soft spring white wheatCake Flourcakes
Pastry Flourcookies and pastries
Durum wheatSemolina   Flourpasta
Kamut FlourKamut bread
Spelt grainSpelt FlourSpelt flour bread
RyeRye FlourJewish rye, pumpernickel, Swedish rye, Russian rye

Wheat varieties can be finely processed and mixed into flour made for particular baking applications. The protein content, texture and type of wheat determines the type of flour and its uses. Whole-wheat flour is dense, high in protein and best used in bread. Cake flour, on the other hand, is very fine, low in protein, high in starch and used in light fluffy cake mixes. Semolina flour is ground endosperm of durum wheat and makes great tasting pasta. Self-rising flour has added salt and baking powder for convenience and is perfect for biscuits and pancakes. Having difficulty making tender pie crusts? A simple change to pastry flour may be the answer.

Non-Wheat Flour Based Types of Bread

CategorySubcategoryTypes of Bread
AmaranthAmaranth Flourmuffins, pancakes, and waffles.
BuckwheatBuckwheat Flourpancakes
Dried maizeCornmealCornbread
MilletMillet Flourbreads in Europe and Russia
OatOat flourMulti-grain breads
Rolled OatsMulti-grain breads
Oat BranOat bran bread
QuinoaQuinoa flourQuinoa bread
RiceWhite/Brown Rice FlourRice flour bread
Ground RiceRice flour bread
TeffTeff flourTeff bread
ChestnutChestnut flourYeast bread
ChickpeaChickpea flourChickpea flour bread
PotatoPotato flourbaking breads, muffins, pie crusts
Soybean seedsSoy FlourMixed-grain breads

Non-wheat flour varieties have distinct flavors and textures. They are delicious additions to wheat flour in many bread recipes or may be used to create something simple, such as corn tortillas.

Non-wheat flour is also used to create gluten free baked goods and pasta. Non-wheat flour is missing the gluten that gives bread the doughy consistency. Without the gluten, it requires help trapping gasses by adding ingredients such as xanthan gum. Gluten free recipes may appear more like cake batter than dough. They may be crumbly like cookies rather than stretchy due to the lack of gluten.

Understanding the best uses of each type of flour will give you the most promising baking results. Use our quick reference guide to help you create the most delicious breads and baked goods.

Barbara Deraas

Barbara Deraas

As a bread lover and advocate of healthy living, join me in creating delicious, nutritious bread that energizes and fortifies you.
Barbara Deraas

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